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Glaucoma Management

Glaucoma is a group of eye disorders which cause damage to the optic nerve. The optic nerve connects the eye to the brain and transmits images. This optic nerve is damaged when intraocular pressure inside the eye becomes higher than normal. This condition is also called ocular hypertension or high eye pressure. The disorder is an inherited condition and worsens over time leading to permanent vision loss. A timely treatment and detection can protect the eye against serious vision loss and permanent blindness.
Two main types of glaucoma are open angle glaucoma (OAG) and narrow angle glaucoma (NAG). OAG refers to cases where the watery fluid built-up inside the eye can access the drainage angle to form its path out of the eye. NAG refers to a condition where the watery fluid cannot access the drainage path.


Most people do not develop early symptoms of glaucoma. However, the only first sign is a peripheral loss of angled or side vision. For an early detection, in case any symptoms of vision difficulty, complete eye check up with a specialist on regular basis is advised. The symptoms that should not be ignored or are grouped as early signals are:
  • 1. Difficulty in seeing.
  • 2. Peripheral or partial vision loss.
  • 3. Redness in the eyes.
  • 4. Hazy eyes particularly for infants.
  • 5. Nausea and vomiting.
  • 6. Eye pain.
  • 7. Narrowed tunnel vision.


Glaucoma occurs due to pressure build-up inside the eye because of obstruction in the path of liquid movement in front part of the eye. The fluid called aqueous humor, moves within the eye through a mesh like structure. In case of any obstruction inside this channel, pressure builds up leading to glaucoma. Probable causes of the disease include:
  • 1. Infection.
  • 2. Injury.
  • 3. Blocked blood vessels of eye.
  • 4. Eye inflammation.


To prevent the occurrence of this disease, there are certain things one should take care of:
  • 1. Regular eye health.
  • 2. Safe exercise.
  • 3. Taking prescribed eye drops.
  • 4. Wearing eye protection.

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Intravitreal injection:

Intravitreal injection of drugs to treat various retinal conditions like Diabetic macular edoema, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Endophthalmitis, etc.
The three widely used Anti-VEGF drugs are Ranibizumab, Bevacizumab and Aflibercept.

Laser therapy for the Retina:

Panretinal photocoagulation, Focal Retinal Laser, and Barrage Laser are types of laser treatments for the Retina to treat the growth of abnormal blood vessels on Retina in Diabetes. Barrage Laser helps to seal localised Retinal holes or breaks.

Types Of Intraocular Lenses (IOL)

Post Cataract surgery the cataractous lens is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens. Intraocular lenses that are implanted in the human eye are broadly of two types:
Multifocal IOL: These IOL's are good option to correct pseudophakic presbyopia as they achieve spectacle independence with high levels of patient satisfaction.
Monofocal IOL: These are single focal lenses which corrects vision for distance, Patient still need glasses for near.

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