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Vitreo Retina Disease Management

Vitreoretinal diseases are a group of eye conditions concerning the retina and the vitreous in your eye. These structures can become damaged, often with age, and lead to eye problems that can affect your vision.

Types

Common retinal diseases and conditions include:
  • 1. Retinal tear. A retinal tear occurs when the clear, gel-like substance in the center of your eye (vitreous) shrinks and tugs on the thin layer of tissue lining the back of your eye (retina) with enough traction to cause a break in the tissue. It's often accompanied by the sudden onset of symptoms such as floaters and flashing lights.
  • 2. Retinal detachment. A retinal detachment is defined by the presence of fluid under the retina. This usually occurs when fluid passes through a retinal tear, causing the retina to lift away from the underlying tissue layers.
  • 3. Diabetic retinopathy. If you have diabetes, the tiny blood vessels (capillaries) in the back of your eye can deteriorate and leak fluid into and under the retina. This causes the retina to swell, which may blur or distort your vision. Or you may develop new, abnormal capillaries that break and bleed. This also worsens your vision.
  • 4. Epiretinal membrane. Epiretinal membrane is a delicate tissue-like scar or membrane that looks like crinkled cellophane lying on top of the retina. This membrane pulls up on the retina, which distorts your vision. Objects may appear blurred or crooked.
  • 5. Macular hole. A macular hole is a small defect in the center of the retina at the back of your eye (macula). The hole may develop from abnormal traction between the retina and the vitreous, or it may follow an injury to the eye.
  • 6. Macular degeneration. In macular degeneration, the center of your retina begins to deteriorate. This causes symptoms such as blurred central vision or a blind spot in the center of the visual field.
  • 7. Retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited degenerative disease. It slowly affects the retina and causes loss of night and side vision

Symptoms

Many retinal diseases share some common signs and symptoms. These may include:
  • 1. Seeing floating specks or cobwebs
  • 2. Blurred or distorted (straight lines look wavy) vision
  • 3. Defects in the side vision
  • 4. Lost vision

Risk factors

Risk factors for retinal diseases might include:
  • 1. Aging
  • 2. Smoking
  • 3. Being obese
  • 4. Having diabetes or other diseases
  • 5. Eye trauma
  • 6. A family history of retinal diseases

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Intravitreal injection:

Intravitreal injection of drugs to treat various retinal conditions like Diabetic macular edoema, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Endophthalmitis, etc.
The three widely used Anti-VEGF drugs are Ranibizumab, Bevacizumab and Aflibercept.


Laser therapy for the Retina:

Panretinal photocoagulation, Focal Retinal Laser, and Barrage Laser are types of laser treatments for the Retina to treat the growth of abnormal blood vessels on Retina in Diabetes. Barrage Laser helps to seal localised Retinal holes or breaks.


Types Of Intraocular Lenses (IOL)

Post Cataract surgery the cataractous lens is replaced with an artificial intraocular lens. Intraocular lenses that are implanted in the human eye are broadly of two types:
Multifocal IOL: These IOL's are good option to correct pseudophakic presbyopia as they achieve spectacle independence with high levels of patient satisfaction.
Monofocal IOL: These are single focal lenses which corrects vision for distance, Patient still need glasses for near.

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